Finite Element Modeling of Temperature Cycles in AxiSymmetric Flash Butt Welded Thin Steel Rods and Experimental Validation
Flash butt welding is a process designed to produce a forge-type butt weld between two metal pieces ofÂ similar shape. A one-dimensional finite element (FE) modeling of the temperature profile in axisymmetricÂ flash butt welded steel rods was carried out and results were verified by experimentation. A linearÂ interpolation function was used in the weighted residual expression which was transformed into a matrixÂ temperature values. Non-uniform nodal spacing was used with more concentration of nodes around the
heat affected zone (HAZ). Welding process variables examined include; effect of pre-heat temperature,Â flash temperature, flash duration, and material geometries on temperature profile at various points alongÂ the rod. With a typical weld rod diameter of 5 mm and length 40 mm, at weld flash duration of 2 secondsÂ peak temperatures of 572.6, 304.8, 214.2 and 170 0C were attained at distances 1, 2, 3 and 4 mmÂ respectively from weld canter. At a distance 5 mm from weld center the thermal profile computed by finiteÂ element model were compared with experimental results obtained using type k thermocouple. PeakÂ temperature values of 134.8 C and 132 C obtained for FE modeling and laboratory experimentsÂ respectively indicating a good agreement to within 2.1 % between peak temperatures.
Welding Journal, 5:210 - 215.
Adedayo, S.M and Irehovbude, S.O., (2013). Numerical simulation of transient
temperature in flash butt-welded axi-symmetric circular sections, Journal of Naval
Architecture and Marine Engineering, 10:33-40.
Aniyi A. J., (1993). Effect of die and stress relief temperatures on squeeze cast
aluminum alloy, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University
of Ilorin, Nigeria.
Armin, R and Mehdi, I., (2014). Prediction of asymmetric transient temperature and
longitudinal residual stress in friction stir welding of 304L stainless steel, Journal
of Material and Design, 55:812-820.
Attarha, M.T. and Sattari-Far I., (2011). Study on welding temperature distribution in thin
welded plates through experimental measurements and finite element simulation.
Journal of Material Processing Technology, 211: 688-694
Boo, K.S. and Cho, H.S., (1990). Transient Temperature Distribution in Arc Welding of
Finite thickness plate, proceeding of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part
B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture 204:175-183.
Dean, D. and Shoichi, K., (2012). Numerical simulation of welding field, residual stress
and deformation induced by electro slag welding, Computational Material
Hwa, T. L., Chun, T. C. and Jia, L.W., (2010). Numerical and experimental investigation
into effect of temperature field on sensitization of Alloy 690 butt welds fabricated
by gas tungsten arc welding and laser beam welding, Journal of Material
Processing Technology, 210:1636-1645.
Ify, N. L., (2008). Finite element modeling of engineering systems, 2nd edition,
University of Port Harcourt Press, Nigeria.
Jerzy, W., (2012). A simplified method of predicting stresses in surfaced steel rods,
Journal of Material Processing Technology, 212:1080-1088.
Li, C. and Wang, Y., (2013). Three-dimensional finite element analysis of temperature
and stress distributions for in-service welding process, Material and Design,
Manole, D.M. and Lage, J.L., (1993). Non-uniform grid accuracy test applied to the
natural-convection flow within a porous medium cavity, Numerical Heat Transfer,
part B, 23:351-368.
Mato P., Zdenko T., Alan R., Martin S., Ivica G., Ivanka B. and Srec ´k.Š., (2014).
Numerical analysis and experimental investigation of welding residual stresses
and distortions in a T-joint fillet weld, Journal of Material and Design, 53:1052-
Pengkang, Z., Li F. and Dechao, Z., (2014). Numerical simulation of transient
temperature and axial deformation during linear friction welding between TC11
and TC17 titanium alloys, Computational Material Science, 92:325-333.
Reddy, J.N., (2006). An introduction to the finite element method, 3rd edition, Texas, Mc
Rosenthal, D., (1941). Mathematical Theory of Heat Distribution during cutting and
welding, Welding Journal, 20:220-234.
Sirajuddin, E.K., Krishnan, K.N. and Mohd, A.W., (2012). Study of Transient
Temperature Distribution in a Friction Welding Process and its effects on its
Joints, International Journal of Computational Engineering Research, 5: 1645-
Sullivan, J. F. and Savage, W. F., (1971). Effect of phase control during flashing on
flash weld defects, Welding Journal, 213-221.
Tang, W., Guo, X., McClure, J.C., Murr, L.E. and Nunes, A., (1998). Heat Input and
Temperature Distribution in Friction Stir Welding, Journal of Materials Processing
and Manufacturing Science, 7:163-172.