Phase and Micro-Chemical Characterization of Water Works Sludge Minerals and their Thermally-Decomposed Products

  • N V Anyakora
  • C. S. Ajinomoh
  • A. S. Ahmed
  • I. A. Mohammed-Dabo
  • S. P. Ejeh
  • C. A. Okuofu
  • H. Abba
Keywords: amorphous silica, gamma-alumina, kaolinite, meta-kaolinite, Water works sludge


Environmental Regulations worldwide have created a critical need for a long term approach to sludge management for environmental sustainability. Several sludge disposal concepts adopt the reuse of sludge as a viable alternative to material application and utilization in engineering design. In-depth understanding of the mineralogical compositions of water works sludge and its decomposed products became inevitable for optimal use in engineering applications. In this paper, sludge from Lower Usuma Dam Water Treatment Plant (LUDWTP), Abuja, Nigeria is assessed for reuse potentials in engineering applications. The processing steps considered include gravity thickening, air drying and thermal treatment at temperatures of 105 oC, 800 oC and 1000 oC respectively. The effect of temperature on the microstructure and chemical properties of the resultant sludge ash were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The results
showed the presence of phyllosilicates. The thermally-treated sludge at 105 oC did not show significant changes in structure while the diffraction patterns at 800 oC gave a featureless x-ray band of amorphous meta-kaolinite and the formation of gamma-alumina and amorphous silica at 1000 oC. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) tests showed that the metal leaching level is within the acceptable National and International environmental limits


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How to Cite
Anyakora, N. V., Ajinomoh, C. S., Ahmed, A. S., Mohammed-Dabo, I. A., Ejeh, S. P., Okuofu, C. A., & Abba, H. (2019). Phase and Micro-Chemical Characterization of Water Works Sludge Minerals and their Thermally-Decomposed Products. Journal of Engineering Research, 21(1), 9-20. Retrieved from