Effect of Open Dumping of Municipal Solid Waste on Groundwater Quality in Ekurede Itsekiri, Warri South LGA, Delta State, Nigeria.

  • A. Rawlings Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria.
  • S. Seghosime Department of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi, Nigeria.
Keywords: Contamination, Dump site, Groundwater, Leachate, Municipal Solid Waste


Generation of municipal solid waste is on the increase because of economic development and increased population. Due to lack of finance which result to improper waste management practices in most developing countries like Nigeria, solid wastes are being dumped on land without adopting any acceptable sanitary land filling practices and this pose a threat to the populace and the surrounding environment as it causes all types of pollution including groundwater pollution. Hence there is need to regularly monitor the groundwater around such site to ascertain its portability for human consumption. In this study, groundwater samples were collected from ten different boreholes at distances from a dump site in Ekurede Itsekiri community. Leachate samples were also collected randomly from five different leachate points around the same dump site. These samples were collected in May, 2021 (rainy season). Both the groundwater and leachate samples were analysed for their physiochemical properties and then evaluated for their heavy metal pollution (HPI) status. The physiochemical analysis of the groundwater revealed that of all the parameters examined, pH, TDS, NH4N and Fe were not within acceptable limits and for the leachate, pH, coliform bacteria, Fe, Cr, Cd and Pb were not within acceptable limits. This is implying that the dump site has impact on the groundwater quality around it. All parameters analysed were detected in the leachate while some parameters (coliform bacteria, Turbidity, TSS, Cr, Cd, Ni and Pb) were not detected in the groundwater. The clayey soil in the study area seems to have significantly influenced the absence of these contaminants from the groundwater. The HPI shows that the groundwater and the leachate are not critically polluted with heavy metals as the mean HPI values for the groundwater (35.977) and the leachate (34.85) were below the critical index value (100). Although, the HPI has indicated that the groundwater is not critically polluted with heavy metals, but results of the physiochemical analysis has revealed that the groundwater around the dump site has deteriorated and as such it is unsafe and unfit for human use.


Okhuaihe river, Edo State, Nigeria. African Journal of Aquatic Science, 43 (4): 345-351.
Erah, P. O., Akujieze, C. N. and Oteze, G. E. (2002). The Quality of Groundwater in Benin City: A Baseline Study on Inorganic Chemicals and Microbial Contaminants of Health Importance in Boreholes and Open Wells. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 1(2): 75-82.
Esinulo, A. C., Ogbuagu, D. H. and Kelle, I. A. (2016). Bioaccumulation of Zn in Muscle and Brain Tissues of the African Catfish-Clarias gariepinus . Journal of Geoscience and Environmental Protection, 04(05): 12-20.
Garvin, K. S. (2017). Water Analysis Handbook: Health Effects of Iron in Drinking Water. Hach Chemical Company, Loveland, Colorado USA.
Ibe-Sr, K. M. and Agbamu, P. U. (1999): Impacts of Human Activities on Groundwater Quality of an Alluvial Aquifer: A Case Study of the Warri River, Delta State, SW, Nigeria. International Journal of
Environmental Health Research, 9(4): 329-334
Igbal, M. A. and Gupta, S. G. (2009). Studies on Heavy Metal Ion Pollution of Ground Water Sources as an Effect of Minicipal Solid Waste Dumping. African Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 1 (5-6): 117- 122.
Izeze, O. and Konboye, A. (2018). Statistical and Spatial Analysis of Groundwater Quality in Warri and its Environs, Delta State, Nigeria. International Journal of Science Inventions Today (IJSIT), 7(3): 401-421
Karunakaran, V. (2008). Study of Water Quality in and around Vriddhachalam in Cuddalore District, Tamil nadu. Nature Environment. & Pollution Technology, 7(4): 635-638.
Khan, M. Z. H., Mostafa, M. G. and Saha. A. K. (2015). Impact of Municipal Waste Dumping on Soil and Water around a Dump Site in Rajshahi City. International Journal of Humanities, Arts, Medicine and Sciences (BEST: IJHAMS), 1(1): 1-8
Kola-Olusanya, A. (2012). Impact of Municipal Solid Wastes on Underground Water Sources in Nigeria. European Scientific Journal, 8 :1-19.
Kot, B., Baranowski, R. and Rybak, A. (2000). The Chemical Investigation on Water Pollution of Kurnool District by Water Quality. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 9: 429-431.
Kwaya, Y. M., Hamidu, H., Mohammed, I. A., Abdulmumini, N. Y., Adamu, H. I., Grema, M. H., Dauda, M., Halilu, B. F. and Kana, M. A. (2019). Heavy Metals Pollution Indices and Multivariate Statistical
Evaluation of Groundwater Quality of Maru Town and Environs. Journal of Materials and Environmental Sciences, 10 (1): 32-44
Longe, E.O. and Enekwechi, L.O. (2007). Investigation on Potential Groundwater Impacts and Influence of Local Hydrogeology on Natural Attenuation of Leachate at a Municipal Landfill. International Journal of Environmental Sciences and Technology, 4(1): 133- 140.
Magutu, O. P., Mbeche, M. I., Nyamwange, O. S., Mwove, M. and Ndubai, E. R. (2010). Formulation and Implementation of Operation Strategies Used in Solid Waste Management: Case Study of City Council of Nairobi. Journal of African Research in Business and Technology, 1-21.
Mor, S., Ravindra, K., Dahiya, R.P., and Chandra, A. (2006). Leachate Characterization and Assessment of Groundwater Pollution near Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Site. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 118: 435-456.
Nandwana, R. and Chhipa, R. C. (2014). Impact of Solid Waste Disposal on Groundwater Quality in Different Disposal Site at Jaipur, India. International Journal of Engineering Sciences and Research Technology, 3(8): 93-101.
NPC-National Population Commission of Nigeria, (2006). Nigeria Population and Housing Census. Development Economics Data Group, Version 01 (July 2013).
NSDWQ, (2015). Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality. NIS, 554: 1-28.
Nyandwaro, E. O. (2017). The Impacts of Solid Waste on Ground and Surface Water Quality in Kisii Municipality, Kenya. Unpublished Masters’ Thesis, Environmental Science Department, School of Environmental Studies, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya.
Ogbeifun, D. E., Archibong, U. D., Chiedu, I. E. and Ikpe, E. E. (2019). Assessment of the Water Quality of Boreholes in Selected Areas in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. Chemical Science International Journal, 28(2):1-13.
Oghenero, A. E., Enuvie, A. and Akaha, T. (2014). Geotechnical Properties of Subsurface Soils in Warri, Western Niger Delta, Nigeria. Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, 4 (1): 89-102.
Ozoemenam, J. C., Akudinobi, B. E. B., Nnodu, V. C. and Obiadi, I. I. (2018). Water Quality Assessment of Shallow and Deep Boreholes in Ekpan Community, Effurun, Delta State, Nigeria. Environmental Earth Sciences, 77 (5): 170
Paiu, M. and Breaban, I. G. (2014). Water Quality Index – an Instrument for Water Resources Management. Aerul şi Apa: Componente ale Mediului, 391-398.
How to Cite
Rawlings, A., & Seghosime, S. (2022). Effect of Open Dumping of Municipal Solid Waste on Groundwater Quality in Ekurede Itsekiri, Warri South LGA, Delta State, Nigeria. Journal of Engineering Research, 27(1), 11-25. Retrieved from http://jer.unilag.edu.ng/article/view/1590