Investigation of Sediment Accumulation in Ojo Creek Channel using Geostatistical Techniques

  • O. A. Jimoh Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria
  • I. A. Hamid-Mosaku Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria
  • O. F. Oguntade Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria
  • K. A. Raheem Department of Civil Engineering, University of Port-Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria
  • A. Balogun Geospatial Analysis and Modelling Research (GAMR) Group, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Petronas (UTP), Perak, Malaysia
Keywords: River channels, geostatistical techniques, spatial database, sediment deposit, geomorphology.


River channels are characterized with natural processes, anthropogenic activities, geomorphology, and climate change, resulting in sediment accumulation. This consideration, however, has geomorphic impacts on riverbed, bank erosion, channel widening, sediment deposition, floodplain scour and destruction of near structures; thereby, significantly impacting on safe navigation and aquatic habitat. This paper investigates sediment accumulation in Ojo creek channel over a period of 9 years using geospatial techniques. Acquired hydrographic, bathymetry, and geospatial information of the study area were structured into spatial database for further integration with spatial analysis using geostatistical methods of Kriging/Co-kriging interpolation method in ArcGIS environment. Relative comparisons of volume of the water over the years were done for accretion and erosion. The net loss and gain in material over the years were revealed to be 1,601,251.949m3 and 1,017,252,326.841m3 respectively. Therefore, the volume of sediment calculated to be approximately 1,015,651,074.892m3. Furthermore, prediction and error analysis conducted was used to quantify the effect of sediment deposits and volume of water in the river channel. Thus, this study provides a framework for quantifying sessions of the channel that requires dredging and the amount of sand dredged for channel maintenance leading to safe navigation and good water supply.


Abidin, R. Z., Sulaiman, M. S., and Yusoff, N. (2017). Erosion risk assessment: A case study of the Langat River bank in Malaysia. International Soil and Water Conservation Research, 5(1), 26–35.
Badejo, O. T. (2015). Hydrographic Surveying Lecture Note. Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.
Badejo, O. T. (2016). Electronic Navigation and Positioning: Hydrographic Surveying. Hydrographic Surveying. Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics. University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.
Chil, T. Y. (2006). Reclamation Managing Water in the West: Erosion and Sediment Manual. Denver Colorado: U.S. Department of Interior Bureau of Reclamation Sedimentation and River Hydraulic Group.
Chukwu, F. N., and Badejo, O. T. (2015). Bathymetric Survey Investigation for Lagos Lagoon Seabed Topographical Changes. Journal of Geosciences and Geomatics, 3(2), 37-43.
Dey, S., Saksena, S., and Merwade, V. (2019). Assessing the effect of different bathymetric models on hydraulic simulation of rivers in data sparse regions. Journal of Hydrology, 575, 838–851.
Downs, P. W., and Piégay, H. (2019). Catchment-scale cumulative impact of human activities on river channels in the late Anthropocene: implications, limitations, prospect. Geomorphology, 338, 88–104.
Fischer, R. A., and Fischenich, J. C. (2000). Design recommendations for riparian corridors and vegetated buffer strips. ERDC TN-EMRRP-SR-24, US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Environmental Laboratory, 3909 Halls Ferry Rd., Vicksburg, MS 39180.
Hawes, E., & Smith, M. (2005). “Riparian buffer zones: Functions and recommended widths.” Retrieved on July 30, 2019 from:
Jimoh, O. A. (2017). Bathymetric Survey of Ojo Creek, Kirikiri Area, Ojo Local Government Area, Lagos State, Nigeria. Retrieved from 2017 SURCON Examination Folio
Jontos, R. (2004). Vegetative buffers for water quality protection: an introduction and guidance document. Connecticut Association of Wetland Scientists White Paper on Vegetative Buffers. Draft version 1.0. 22pp.
Joyce, H. M., Hardy, R. J., Warburton, J., & Large, A. R. G. (2018). Sediment continuity through the upland sediment cascade: geomorphic response of an upland river to an extreme flood event. Geomorphology, 317, 45–61.
Kasvi, E. L., Laamanen, E., & Lotsari, P. A. (2017). Flow patterns and morphological changes in a sandy meander bend during a flood - spatially and temporally intensive ADCP measurement approach. Water, 9(106), 1-20.
Langat, P. K., Kumar, L., & Koech, R. (2018). Monitoring river channel dynamics using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Geomorphology, 325, 92–102.
Morais, E. S., Rocha, P. C., & Hooke, J. (2016). Spatiotemporal variations in channel changes caused by cumulative factors in a meandering river: The lower Peixe River, Brazil. Geomorphology, 273, 348–360.
Musa, J. J., Abdulwaheed, S., & Saidu, M. (2010). Effect of surface runoff on Nigerian rural roads (a case study of Offa local government area). AU Journal of Technology, 13(4), 242–248.
Nwilo, P., & Badejo, O. (2004). Management of oil spill dispersal along the Nigerian coastal areas. Research Gate.
Ojigi, M. L., Aturuocha, V. E., Olushola O., Anekwe, C. O., & Rufai, T. (2012). Hydrographic Survey of Tagwai Dam Reservoir, Minna, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Water Resources (NJWR), National Resources Institute, Kaduna, Nigeria, 2(1), 48-58.
Oladosu, S. O., Ojigi, L. M., Aturuocha, V. E., Anekwe, C. O., & Rufai, T. (2019). Sediment Accumulation Study In Tagwai Dam Using Bathymetric Techniques. Paper presented at the NASGL Conference/AGM, Minna 2019: Exploring the Frontiers of Surveying and Geoinformatics for sustainable development, School of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria.
Palmieri, A., Shah, F., & Dinar, A. (2001). Economics of reservoir sedimentation and sustainable management of dams. Journal of Environmental Management, 61, 149–163.
Pan, B., Guan, Q., Liua, Z., & Gao, H. (2015). Analysis of channel evolution characteristics in the Hobq Desert reach of the Yellow River (1962–2000). Global and Planetary Change, 135, 148–158.
Saleh, F., Ducharne, A., Flipo, N., Oudin, L., & Ledoux, E. (2013). Impact of river bed morphology on discharge and water levels simulated by a 1D Saint–Venant hydraulic model at regional scale. Journal of Hydrology, 476, 169–177.
USACE. (1991). Buffer Strips for Riparian Zone Management (a Literature Review). United States: Army Corps of Engineers, New England Division.
Water-Notes. (2000). Sediment in streams. (WN17:1441-3345). East Perth, Western Australia: Water and Rivers Commission Retrieved on 30 July, 2019 from
How to Cite
Jimoh, O. A., Hamid-Mosaku, I. A., Oguntade, O. F., Raheem, K. A., & Balogun, A. (2020). Investigation of Sediment Accumulation in Ojo Creek Channel using Geostatistical Techniques. Journal of Engineering Research, 25(3), 6-18. Retrieved from